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    預防飼料霉菌毒素 Prevention of feed mycotoxins

        飼料霉菌毒素指霉菌在其污染的飼料中產生的有毒代謝產物,是一種抗營養物質和致病物質(致癌、致畸形、致突變)。它可以通過飼料進入動物體內,引起動物的急性或慢性毒性,損害機體的肝臟、神經組織、造血組織及皮膚、免疫器管和生殖系統。霉菌毒素可在農作物收獲時形成,也可在農作物收獲后形成。高溫和高濕的環境會使飼料發生霉變和腐敗。

    Feed mycotoxins refer to toxic metabolites produced by molds in their contaminated feeds, which are anti-nutrients and pathogenic substances (carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic).It can enter animals through feed, causing acute or chronic toxicity in animals, damaging the body's liver, nerve tissue, hematopoietic tissue and skin, immune organs and reproductive system. Mycotoxins can be formed when crops are harvested or after crops are harvested. High temperature and high humidity can cause mildew and spoilage of the feed.


    從玉米到黃貯,霉變嚴重

    From corn to yellow silage, mildew is serious

        2021年夏季以來,我國多地降雨明顯偏多,河南、山東產糧大省均遭遇嚴重洪澇災害,農民損失慘重,新玉米的品質收到了嚴重影響,很多玉米還未收割就已經發霉。同時,因田地水澇嚴重,玉米秸稈收割機無法正常工作,多地牧場沒有收到高質量的青貯玉米。由于時間延誤,玉米秸稈水分大量流失,黃貯的難度也非常大。  

    Since the summer of 2021, there has been significantly more rainfall in many parts of my country. Major grain-producing provinces such as Henan and Shandong have suffered severe floods, farmers have suffered heavy losses, and the quality of new corn has been seriously affected. Many corns have been moldy before they are harvested. At the same time, due to serious waterlogging in the fields, the corn stalk harvester could not work normally, and many pastures did not receive high-quality silage corn. Due to the time delay, the corn stalks lose a lot of water, and the yellow silage is also very difficult.


        有數據調查顯示,去年全國各地區采集的1184份玉米青貯樣本霉菌毒素檢測結果中,嘔吐毒素最高含量為18877.00μg/kg,平均含量為1942.96μg/kg,超過限量標準,超標率達6.67%;其次為玉米赤霉烯酮,最高含量為2641.43μg/kg,超標率為4.36%;黃曲霉毒素B1沒有超標,其平均含量為3.90μg/kg(1)。今年和明年的玉米原料中的霉菌毒素情況預測會比往年更加嚴重。

    According to a data survey, among 1,184 corn silage samples collected from various regions of the country last year, the highest content of DON was 18,877.00μg/kg, and the average content was 1,942.96μg/kg, exceeding the limit standard, and the exceeding rate was 6.67%; Followed by zearalenone, the highest content was 2641.43 μg/kg, and the exceeding rate was 4.36%; aflatoxin B1 did not exceed the standard, and its average content was 3.90 μg/kg (Table 1). Mycotoxins in corn feedstock this year and next are forecast to be more severe than in previous years.


    霉菌毒素對動物消化道的危害

    Harmful effects of mycotoxins on the digestive tract of animals

    消化道是動物體內直面霉菌毒素挑戰最多的場所。霉菌毒素對消化道的破壞是最直接的,同時由于霉菌毒素具有超強的腐蝕性,它會引起整個消化系統發生炎癥。

    The digestive tract is the place in the animal body that faces the most challenges from mycotoxins. Mycotoxins damage the digestive tract most directly, and because mycotoxins are super corrosive, they can cause inflammation throughout the digestive system.

    霉菌毒素對家禽消化道的破壞

    Damage to the digestive tract of poultry by mycotoxins

    1、 嗉囊炎加速霉菌污染Cropitis accelerates mold contamination

        通常都認為是白色念珠菌感染,嗉囊內膨大水脹、潰瘍。它帶來的不是飼料發酸變質,還會把黏液流進料槽,污染料槽內的飼料,不及時清理就會導致料槽內的飼料結塊發霉。

    It is usually considered to be Candida albicans infection, swelling and swelling in the crop, and ulcers. It not only brings acidity and deterioration of the feed, but also flows mucus into the feed trough, which contaminates the feed in the feed trough. If it is not cleaned in time, the feed in the feed trough will agglomerate and become moldy.

    2、引發腺胃炎肌胃炎Causes gland gastritis and muscle gastritis

        霉菌毒素是引起腺肌胃炎的主要元兇,能引起肌胃糜爛或角質層脫落、腺胃出現腫脹或松軟。在臨床上,一旦發現腺胃腫脹一般都會比較敏感和重視,直接判斷為腺胃炎,但對腺胃、肌胃松軟的就不那么重視了,其實出現這種情況的主要原因就是嘔吐毒素和T2毒素混合感染造成的,所以,在臨床上定期使用優質脫霉劑意義重大。

    Mycotoxins are the main culprit in causing adenomyosis, which can cause gizzard erosion or cuticle shedding, and glandular stomach to appear swollen or soft. Clinically, once the glandular stomach is found to be swollen, it is generally more sensitive and important, and it is directly judged as "glandular gastritis", but less attention is paid to the soft glandular stomach and gizzard. In fact, the main reason for this situation is DON It is caused by mixed infection with T2 toxin, so it is of great significance to regularly use high-quality mold remover in clinical practice.

    3、損傷腸道Injury to the intestines

        霉菌毒素能引起腸道充血、出血、壞死、潰瘍、腸黏膜脫落、影響腸道對營養物質的吸收,料比增高。臨床上,很多腸道病并不一定是細菌感染引起的,是被污染的飼料引起的,尤其是發霉的飼料和水線里的霉菌。事實上,在治療腸道病時很多情況下用抗菌藥并沒收到很好的效果就是最好的證明!所以,關注霉菌及霉菌毒素,是減少腸道疾病、提高飼料轉化率、提高養殖效益的途徑!

    Mycotoxins can cause intestinal congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, ulcers, shedding of intestinal mucosa, affect the absorption of nutrients in the intestines, and increase the feed-to-meat ratio. Clinically, many intestinal diseases are not necessarily caused by bacterial infection, but caused by contaminated feed, especially moldy feed and mold in water lines. In fact, the use of antibiotics in many cases in the treatment of intestinal diseases has not received very good results is the best proof! Therefore, paying attention to mold and mycotoxins is a good way to reduce intestinal diseases, improve feed conversion rate, and improve breeding efficiency!

    霉菌毒素對豬消化道的破壞Mycotoxins damage to pig digestive tract

        嘔吐毒素能引起養豬業較大的經濟損失。嘔吐毒素會引起豬的嘔吐,傷害消化道,甚致會引起胃潰瘍和胃穿孔。育肥豬生長緩慢,皮毛骯臟,拉稀腹瀉等。嘔吐毒素最明顯的影響是降低采食量,部分動物會出現嘔吐。它也會抑制免疫系統,降低抗氧化能力,有些時候還會對腸道粘膜造成損傷,通過影響緊密連接蛋白而破壞腸道通透性,導致沙門氏菌等致病菌透過腸道屏障。

    DON can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. DON can cause vomiting in pigs, damage the digestive tract, and even cause gastric ulcers and gastric perforation. Fattening pigs grow slowly, with dirty fur, diarrhea, etc. The most obvious effect of DON is a reduction in feed intake, and some animals may vomit. It also suppresses the immune system, reduces antioxidant capacity, and sometimes causes damage to the intestinal mucosa, disrupting intestinal permeability by affecting tight junction proteins, allowing pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella to penetrate the intestinal barrier.

        T2毒素屬于單端孢霉烯族毒素,該家族有200多種毒素,分為AB型兩大類,T2HT2(T2的主要代謝物)都屬于A型。T2相當于一個指示劑,一旦檢測到,往往不只它一個孤立存在,還能同時見到該家族的其他親戚毒素。T2毒素不僅會引起免疫抑制,釋放促炎癥因子,還會損傷整個消化系統的粘膜,引起腸出血。

    T2 toxins belong to the Trichothecenes family of toxins. There are more than 200 toxins in this family, which are divided into two types: A and B. T2 and HT2 (the main metabolites of T2) belong to A type. T2 is equivalent to an indicator. Once detected, it often not only exists in isolation, but also sees other "relative" toxins in the family at the same time. Not only does T2 toxin cause immunosuppression and release pro-inflammatory factors, it also damages the mucosa of the entire digestive system, causing intestinal bleeding.

    霉菌毒素對反芻動物消化道的破壞

    Mycotoxins damage to the digestive tract of ruminants

       

    反芻動物瘤胃微生物對玉米赤霉烯酮的降解可達90%,因此對玉米赤霉烯酮的敏感性不如豬,但值得注意的是,玉米赤霉烯酮經過瘤胃微生物作用后的產物是毒性更大的玉米赤霉烯醇。黃曲霉毒素降低瘤胃纖維素的消化、揮發性脂肪酸的組成和蛋白質的水解,從而影響瘤胃體外消化功能,引發牛出現胃腸炎、腸出血、腹瀉、拉稀等癥狀。

    Ruminant rumen microorganisms can degrade zearalenone by up to 90%, so the sensitivity to zearalenone is not as good as that of pigs, but it is worth noting that the product of zearalenone after the action of rumen microorganisms is toxic Greater Zearalenol. Aflatoxin reduces the digestion of rumen cellulose, the composition of volatile fatty acids and the hydrolysis of protein, thereby affecting the in vitro digestion function of the rumen, causing gastroenteritis, intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, diarrhea and other symptoms in cattle.

    由于習慣上將不符合食用標準的原料轉為飼料飼喂動物,因此霉菌毒素對飼料安全的影響遠高于其對食品安全的直接影響。近幾年來,我國飼料中霉菌毒素陽性率大于95%,黃曲霉毒素、玉米赤霉烯酮、嘔吐毒素、T-2 毒素是主要飼料霉菌毒素,超標率大于10%。動物一旦攝食含有霉菌毒素的飼料將會造成霉菌毒素中毒癥。低劑量的毒素造成動物生產性能和免疫機能下降,引起動物肝腎臟病變、腸毒綜合征、腺胃肌胃炎、繁殖障礙等疾病,高劑量的毒素則引起動物急性死亡。霉菌毒素在肉、蛋、奶中殘留,還會引發動物源性食品安全問題。因此,有效控制和解決霉菌毒素對糧食和飼料的污染,對改善動物生產性能和提高人類食品安全有非常重要的意義。

    Since it is customary to convert raw materials that do not meet edible standards into feed to feed animals, the impact of mycotoxins on feed safety is much higher than its direct impact on food safety. In recent years, the positive rate of mycotoxins in my country's feed is more than 95%. Aflatoxin, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxin are the main feed mycotoxins, and the excess rate is more than 10%. Mycotoxicosis occurs when animals ingest feed containing mycotoxins. Low-dose toxins cause the decline of animal production performance and immune function, causing animal liver and kidney disease, enterotoxic syndrome, gastritis, reproductive disorders and other diseases, while high-dose toxins cause acute animal death. Mycotoxins remain in meat, eggs, and milk, and can also cause food safety issues of animal origin. Therefore, it is very important to effectively control and solve the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins to improve animal production performance and human food safety.



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